Friday, May 18, 2007

User Application Data: a Panorama


I tend to think that IMS and all-IP will make the telecommunications industry move from an era where the typical technical challenge was to design a specific solution for every problem to a new one where the main difficulty will be to select one solution among many candidates.

An illustration of this is user profile management and storage in the future application layer.

In this post I will try to make a panorama of standards and industry trends that may impact this topic in the years to come. In another one, I will express some personal opinions about the way to go.

User Profile Data in the HSS (Diameter, unspecified data format)

The Home Subscriber Server (called UPSF for fixed networks) is the database to store all the user data required by the IMS core network to fulfill its duties.

Additionally, the IMS service architecture has an interface between the HSS and the SIP Application Server called Sh.

This interface is based on Diameter and can be used by the application server for two purposes:
- Accessing user data normally stored in the HSS (or in the HLR), such as the user registration status, the S-CSCF that serves the user, or the service profile associated to the user.
- Storing application data in the HSS. This data is transparent to the HSS, i.e. it does not understand its format and semantic.

Sh supports a Diameter-based notification mechanism, permitting to alert the application server when data has been modified.

Most suppliers support the data repository feature of the HSS. It should be noted that the HSS is a mission critical database, which tends to constitute a major portion of the cost of an IMS core network. In this context, the application data repository feature of the HSS and associated questions (e.g. how much data will be stored in it? How much traffic will it generate?) raises questions about the required characteristics for the HSS and its eventual cost for an operator.

User Profile Data in SIP Application Servers (SIP/XCAP, XML)

In the IMS service architecture, there is a reference point called Ut between IMS clients and Application Servers that is used for service customization. This interface is based on XCAP, a simple HTTP based protocol specified in the IETF, which permits to access and manage data defined as XML documents.

The IMS service architecture therefore implies that a SIP application server can own the user data corresponding to the services it supports. This is a quite straightforward and optimized approach to co-locate user service data with the services that make use of them.

In the Automatic Service Discovery & Configuration example, I showed how a SIP event package (i.e. SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, PULBLISH) can be used by an IMS client to easily retrieve the XCAP location of user data associated to the user (SUBSCRIBE is addressed to one of the user's Public Identities) or to a specific service associated to the user (SUBSCRIBE is addressed to Public Service Identity). The XCAP URI can then be provided to the client in a NOTIFY. The event package also permits the client to monitor changes to the data (as in the IETF, a SIP event package is used to monitor changes in data manipulated using XCAP). These mechanisms can also be used within the network for an application server to retrieve user data in another application server.

XCAP Data Management Servers (XCAP, XML)

Based on XCAP, the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) defined an architecture for user data management which consists of XCAP Data Management Servers (XDMS). You can see figures in this page from Tech-invite.

OMA decided to define a Shared XDMS storing common data between different services/enablers, as well as a specific XDMS for each of them (e.g. push to talk, presence, resource lists). Each of these XDMS is logically separated from the SIP application server supporting the corresponding service/enabler.

In practice, this ambiguous architecture is likely to lead to two implementation options:
1) The supplier decides to implement a network database called XDMS to store all XCAP data, i.e. OMA Shared XDMS and all the service/enabler -specific XDMS. This database is accessed through the XCAP protocol. A priori, it does not support any SIP event package, which may lead to synchronization problems with clients.
2) The supplier decides to combine each service/enabler specific XDMS in the SIP application server supporting the corresponding application. This approach is more in line with the 3GPP service architecture for which Ut (XCAP) and ISC (SIP) terminate to the same entity. It also corresponds to the user-profile-data-in-SIP-AS option above. It permits to support the SIP event package for monitoring of changes in the user data. The supplier may also decide to implement the Shared XDMS as a SIP AS.

Presence (SIP/XCAP, XML)

It might seem strange to list presence, a specific IMS service/enabler, as a potential data repository.

Actually, presence has considerably evolved since the early days when it only supported instant messaging and the IETF suggested to implement it as part of the basic SIP registrar function.
Through multiple extensions to its baseline XML schema, presence can now be considered as an extensive set of static and dynamic information about the user, its devices and its applications. In this context, presence can be seen as an essential repository of user data, that can be used as an enabler by many IMS applications.

In a network in which presence is a basic enabler associated to every user, some data currently considered as user application data, that the user manages service per service, may simply be part of the user's presence. To take a trivial example, presence may eventually make the explicit definition of forwarded-to-numbers for call management services totally irrelevant.

Presence is a specific example of the user-data-in-SIP-AS approach described above.

Generic User Profile (SOAP, XML)

GUP is a 3GPP standard, which is independent from IMS but that can optimally be used with it.
To make it short, GUP permits to define a virtual centralized user database, by enabling an homogeneous and centralized access to distributed user profile components, stored in network databases (e.g. HLR, HSS) and application servers.

The GUP location server is called GUP Server. A client application asks to access user data by providing the identity of the user (e.g. an IMS public identity) and the name of user profile components it wants to access. The GUP server either provides in return the address of the GUP data repository (e.g. an application server) or accesses the data on behalf of the application).

GUP interfaces are based on SOAP and the user data is defined according to a hierarchical XML schema (GUP does not specify the data itself). As GUP aims at supporting Liberty Alliance (set of web services towards 3rd party service providers) within the 3GPP network, GUP interfaces totally align with the Liberty Alliance Project specifications.

The GUP architecture can be compared to the user-data-in-SIP-AS approach in which:
- SOAP replaces SIP/XCAP to access and monitor changes in user data
- The GUP server and its location data plays the role the S-CSCF making use of service profiles endorses with SIP
More especially, the two approaches are able to dispatch a request based on the identity of a target user.

Common Profile Store (LDAP)

Every supplier or operator has its own name for this concept, but CPS is the term under which 3GPP has been addressing it.

CPS originates from a recent telecom industry trend which aims at changing the monolithic nature of network databases (e.g. HLR, HSS, AAA, application servers) into a multi-tiered IT architecture, in which the business logic of the database (e.g. Diameter features of HSS, MAP features from HLR) is physically separated from data storage. An LDAP server supporting telco-grade requirements (e.g. availability, capacity, performance) is shared between stateless business logic frontends implementing a variety of network entities.

CPS permits to optimize and rationalize the architecture of network databases. It also permits to reduce vendor locking achieved through monolithic network databases.

While it does not impose it, CPS also favors a more coherent modeling of user data across the various network databases and application servers, which permits to decrease operating costs and to foster new synergies.

In the context of IMS, CPS would permit to remove the need for a direct interface between the HSS and the HLR (required for Sh) by permitting user data sharing through access to the common backend.

Integration with open service platforms (e.g. J2EE, JAIN SLEE) would permit to use CPS for all applications implemented on these platforms.

So many possibilities... In the next post, I will provide personal opinions on them.

Christophe

118 comments:

Anonymous said...

Congratulations for this living and interesting Blog (I know you like comments, so here is one...)
You didn't mention federated identity protocols (Liberty Alliance, SAML, etc.) as potential technology standards that may impact user profile management and storage. Any reason for that?

Christophe Gourraud said...

Hi,
I mentioned Liberty in the context of GUP. I am a supporter of Liberty, for identity federation but also more generally because I think this is the best attempt of the industry to come up with a coherent web services strategy (I prefer it to Parlay X). Liberty/GUP have the advantage to be user oriented just like the IMS service architecture is.
Christophe

Anonymous said...

Hi!,

Could you please post something on understanding 3GPP groups and work items.

Where to look for new items and current working specs for contributions.

PS: wasinapple@gmail.com

-Thanks
harish

Christophe Gourraud said...

This is a good idea. I will post something in the coming days. Stay tuned.
Christophe

Anonymous said...

Hi!,

Thanks for your post on understanding 3GPP specs and spec development procedure.

I had this 'Q' from long time now.... we have GUP which provides single point of access to applications, OSS to access database.

Applications means it would be 3rd Party Application Server, or home network application server.

Means Application servers can access information from GUP specific to subscribers.

We have one more interface defined between HSS and an AS "Sh-Interface", which also supports functionality to access subscriber data and also supports transparant data as mentioned in your blog and spec.

Which one to use when?. I mean given an AS should it interact with GUP or Sh... which one to choose when?.

-Thanks
Harish

PS: If possible please cc to wasinapple@gmail.com

Christophe Gourraud said...

Hi Harish,

This is a very interesting question, and there is no easy answer to it.

First, it is important to realize that Sh standardization took place before GUP was started. Would GUP have been on the 3GPP map at the time, maybe Sh would be based on GUP and not Diameter.

Another side remark before answering your question is that I often see suppliers of IMS application servers claim that they have Sh support on their roadmap. My usual feedback is: "Wonderful, but what for?" More often than not, they are unable to tell me why on earth they need Sh. They are so eager to be standard compliant that they want to support Sh, while there is a good chance that their applications do not need it. Support of Sh is mandatory for an HSS, but not for an AS, as long as it cannot find any use for it.

Personally, I think that Sh is not a very AS-friendly interface to access HSS information. Moreover, I think that using the HSS as an application data repository (the transparent part of Sh) is not convenient at all, and may end up being very costly.

Therefore, in an ideal world, I would prefer to see a GUP protocol (SOAP methods manipulating XML files) as the way for an AS to access user data within a telecom network in general and in the HSS in particular. I would also use other data repositories than the HSS for application data.

This said, at the moment all HSS suppliers support at least a subset of Sh, and very few support GUP. Therefore, if you absolutely need to access data in the HSS now, Sh might be mandatory.

If I was an architect for the supplier of an IMS application server, my strategy would be the following: delay as long as possible the need to support an interface towards the HSS, with the hope that natural selection will eliminate unfit alternatives and keep the best.

Christophe

Anonymous said...

Hello Christophe,

Thanks for your points.

But according to spec's HSS is the main data storage entity for subscriber parmament data, like PUID,MSISDN,PrivateUserIdentity and associated authentication information....

So when an AS wants information like PrivateUserIdentity ( for generating CDR's) and PUID list given MSISDN ( in case of telURI ) AS instead of maintaining the subscriber information can use Sh-Interface and collect the required information.

I don't see there any report which could become an specification later, which discusses standard in using Sh-Interface with HSS. I mean.. when subscriber information should be fecthed from HSS?.

Inorder to reduce the cost of implimentation and also for scalability based clarity... on number of requests which HSS should be in position to manage. 3GPP could say collect data from Sh as part-of user-registration.. and maintain in local cache.. instead of fecthing the subscriber information every time the subscriber uses the service.

Looks like there is no product which implements GUP functionalities completly and say it's GUP componenet in 3GPP network.

I happen to see Open-HSS implementation, they support ApplicationServerName based authentication, but this is not discussed in Sh-Interface other then one place for my notice which is pulling IFC information... from HSS, we have to pass APP-SIP-URI.

-Thanks
Harish

Christophe Gourraud said...

Hi Harish,

Sh is one of the few examples in IMS standardization of an interface that was introduced without a clear understanding of what it would be used for. I remember the meeting where it was introduced. The delegate from an operator suggested that maybe we needed an interface between the AS and the HSS, and then it was there.

There is definitely interesting information to fetch in the HSS, like the address of an S-CSCF serving a user, but personally I think that a great proportion of the user data Sh permits access to will never be useful to most applications. And most of the time, you have alternative means to get the information.

To my knowledge, the private user identity is not mandatory for charging, but if you need it, then the HSS is the best place to fetch it.

More generally, if you do not want to manage data in the AS, that exists in the HSS, you can fetch it from there.

As for when to fetch data from the HSS, answering this would imply that you know exactly why you need to fetch data, and this is open. Every application can have its own demands.

Concerning the 3GPP description of the HSS as being the main data storage entity for user data, this is essentially a core network -centric statement (the HSS has all what it takes for the IMS core network). Moreover, don't forget that specifications are essentially written by vendors, and vendors of HSS have an interest to make it the center of the world.

Sorry not being able to help you more.

Christophe

Christian said...

Hi Christophe,

if I’ve understood you right, you are saying that a SIP AS does not necessarily need to access information stored in the HSS i.e. the AS specific data would be stored in the AS itself?!

I think that it would make sense to have application specific data stored somewhere else then in the HSS, e.g. using LDAP or relational database due to several reasons such as organizational responsibilities or technical requirements (latency, data model, etc.). My feeling is that vendors are also going this way, can you confirm my feeling?

On the other hand it is hard for me to find arguments against using Diameter. You said that Diameter is not an optimal choice for data management and Sh is weak in terms of data management semantic – can you give more details on the reasons behind?

I’m not a programmer, but when I think about some kind of SIP application which requires a login, e.g. a PIN secured conferencing service, how would I realize the user authorization and authentication without utilizing the HSS?

I would be glad if you could help me with those issues.

Thanks in advance,
Christian

Christophe Gourraud said...

Hi Christian,

You are right many vendors and operators have a strategy to store service data common to various application servers in a data repository, accessible via LDAP, SQL or another protocol. Note that few companies naturally opt for Diameter as the protocol to access the repository.

Considering using the HSS as a data repository, I usually see two types of companies that seem to support the idea: application providers that try to position in the IMS sphere and think that implementing Sh is a mandatory or good way to do it, and... HSS suppliers.

Concerning limitations in the semantic of Sh, well, you can store and retrieve bulk data, without any possibility to select a subset into it. The approach is suitable for a single SIP AS that wants to store its data in the HSS, or for a set of SIP ASs implementing the same service for the same user and supplied by same vendor (as there is no data format specified - though there is an initiative to specify one in 3GPP for the telephony AS).

Concerning authentication data, either this data is naturally stored in the HSS for other authentication purposes or it is not. In the former case this is a natural access to HSS data and not a use case for using the HSS as a data repository. In the latter case, other locations can be selected as well.

Christophe

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Anonymous said...

Hi,

Both XCAP and SOAP are XML application over HTTP. Any difference between them?

Thanks

Christophe Gourraud said...

Hi,

SOAP and XCAP are very different.

SOAP is an XML protocol that can use HTPP as transport, as it can use other protocols like SMTP.

On the other hand, XCAP is tightly linked to and extends on HTPP.

More especially, XCAP semantics corresponds to the HTTP methods it uses. For instance, HTTP GET permits to retrieve an XCAP document while HTTP PUT is used to create or replace a document and HTTP DELETE to remove one.

More generally, SOAP is an RPC protocol using XML to define commands, while XCAP is a data manipulation protocol using XML to model data and HTTP for commands.

Christophe

Christophe Gourraud said...

An a complement to my previous answer...

The 3GPP Generic User Profile (GUP) protocol, which could be used as an alternative to XCAP, is based on SOAP.

This is, all GUP methods for data manipulation and for notifications of changes in data are defined in SOAP.

As it is based on HTTP, XCAP itself can only support data manipulation. The support of data change notifications requires an adjunct protocol, which is SIP via a dedicated event package.

Christophe

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