Wednesday, June 13, 2007

An IMS Application Server in Context



The figure above (click to enlarge) shows how an IMS application server can fit in a service delivery context that includes a legacy telecommunications environment, the Internet, the IT environment of the users it provides services to, and (of course) the IMS.

This picture might not be perfect (though I like the shades of blue), but let me know if you can find much better in the current IMS literature.

A specific instance of an IMS application server may only implement a subset of the features shown in this figure, depending on the capabilities of the platform supporting it, and its potential specialization based on the logic it supports.

It is not the purpose of this post to discuss the technologies that can be used to support such an IMS application server. However, if you look for platforms able to support most of what is implied here, J2EE and JAIN SLEE are certainly the best candidates, and a combination of both might be the winning ticket right now.

Pre-IMS Context (white boxes, black arrows)

The white boxes and black arrows represent the typical pre-IMS context of an application server, that applies to most current Service Delivery Platforms (SDPs).

Applications implemented on the application server can make use of a set of network capabilities such as call control, location, SMS, MMS.

Each set of capabilities is supported by a dedicated network server (e.g. switch, location server) and through a specific network to network interface (e.g. INAP, MLP).

On top of these protocols, the typical SDP provides for the service logic it hosts such features as horizontalization (e.g. hiding of the underlying stove pipes), homogenization (e.g. via a set of similar APIs), simplification (e.g. hiding details of ugly telecom protocols), and abstraction (e.g. permitting to manipulate a call at a high level).

It also exposes the capabilities to 3rd party service providers, through CORBA APIs (e.g. Parlay Classic) or web services (e.g. Parlay X).

The set of capabilities available to service logic in the SDP and to 3rd party service providers is limited and static. It followed a very slow standardization and implementation process, starting with the standardization of the network enabler (e.g. IN), and finishing with the implementation of (standardized) web services (e.g. call control). This means several years.

IMS, and more generally the move to all-IP can change all this and make the picture more colorful.

Where is the IMS Core Network? (lower part)

You might have noticed that the figure does not show any IMS core network entity (e.g. CSCFs, HSS, gateways).

This is not because they are not there or they are not important to the IMS service architecture. Actually, without them, the IMS service architecture would not exist at all!

The point is that the IMS core network itself is of limited relevance from an application perspective, compared to the sophisticated SIP routing mechanisms it provides. This is an aspect that is usually overlooked, as the IMS core network is often the tree that hides the forest to those who try to understand the IMS service architecture.

For instance, I believe that ISC (IMS Service Control) should not be considered as an interface between the S-CSCF and the IMS application server, like INAP is an interface between a switch and an Intelligent Network server. ISC is just the SIP road that permits to connect the IMS application server to the IMS/SIP motorway that connects all the blue entities in the lower half of the picture.

One of my core beliefs is that, among all the benefits the IMS core network can provide to its application layer, one of the most important should be its transparency. An application should only care about what the IMS architecture can provide to it, not about the sophisticated details of how this is done. The application should only know that by issuing this SIP message to this user identity, it will be able to magically access this enabler (e.g. the presence information of this user), and that is all. This is unfair for the hundreds of pages that specify the IMS core network, and the thousands of workers that implement or will operate it, but life is unfair.

SOA and UOA (upper vs. lower parts)

As I wrote in an earlier post, the IMS service architecture as it is depicted in 3GPP specifications is like a picture of a person which would only show its lower half. The reason for this is that 3GPP IMS specifications are core network centric, and only address the relationship between the IMS application server and the core network.

Whereas the pre-IMS application server only exposes a few web services to (hypothetical) 3rd party applications, the future application server should be an integral part of a service oriented architecture, in which applications deployed in the operator's domain could as much be consumers of 3rd party services as they expose some, and could as well integrate with the user's IT environment (e.g. calendar, applications running at home or in the office).

This Internet and IT -centric dimension of the application layer is complemented with its IMS and SIP counterpart (SIP is not the only service protocol that will be used in the IMS, and IMS is not the only network making use of SIP), which adds user orientation to the global service architecture.

To over-simplify, the service oriented architecture routes service requests according to the identity of services, while the user oriented architecture enabled by IMS and SIP can route service requests according to user identities, service identities, or a combination of both. As a consequence, the identity of a user placed in a SIP message (as originator or recipient) may impact service routing and direct the SIP service request to network-based applications serving the user, client or endpoint applications serving the user, or the user itself.

In terms of semantic, it is time for the large part of the telecom industry that still ignores it to understand that the concept of SIP session is much broader than its legacy "call" counterpart, and that SIP is not limited to session control. There are other SIP methods and mechanisms which could be of great interest in the future application layer (e.g. SIP event packages), and which sometimes overlap with the semantic usually associated to web services (e.g. will you use a web service or a SIP SUBSCRIBE to access user information?).

IMS Capabilities: Numerous, Dynamic and Everywhere (lower part left)

The semantic power of SIP, as well as its extreme extensibility and versatility compared to telecom protocols (just look at the rate new SIP drafts pop up in the IETF) make that capabilities usable by applications can be varied, dynamic and multiple.

These capabilities will seldomly be located in standardized network servers like today.
Some will be located in IMS application servers. Every new IMS application exhibiting a SIP interface to end users might be usable as an enabler by other applications using the same SIP interface. Some of these applications could themselves be used as enablers, and so on,

Other capabilities will be located in endpoint servers and devices connected to the IMS, including those associated to end users in a fixed mobile converged environment (e.g. mobile phone, PC at home, home gateway, set top box, fixed phone). Every new application deployed in these endpoints and devices may give birth to new enabling capabilities usable by the IMS application layer. Just to take an example, there exists today a SIP event package that can be used to monitor the activity of a user on a keyboard.

Access to these enablers located in network application servers, IMS devices and enpoint servers, can cross network boundaries. This is, an application located in operator X's network can access an enabler located in or registered with operator Y's network or in the Internet. For instance, an application associated to John, subscriber of operator X, can access the presence of Alice, subscriber of operator Y, and the presence of Bob, located in the Internet.

Web Services, SOA: Much More Possibilities (upper part center)

The multiplicity and dynamicity of IMS service capabilities permits the operator to offer a much richer and differentiated set of IMS services to 3rd party service providers.

Besides the usual communication-related suspects, a large portion of these services are likely to be informational: information about the user, its preferences, its data, its applications, its devices, its activity, etc. It will be the responsibility of the operator to preserve the intimacy and privacy of the users.

The dynamic approach implies that operators will have to rely less on standards and more on differentiation in order to attract third party service providers. This is one example, among others, about the need for the telecom industry to find a new balance between standardization and differentiation.

Web services are not the only way to integrate 3rd party services in the operator's offer. This integration can also be performed on a more horizontal axis.

3rd Party Services Integrated Through End-to-End SIP (bottom part right)

3rd party applications located in the IMS (e.g. in a different operator's network) or in a non-IMS network (e.g. the Internet) can have an end-to-end SIP interaction with the IMS clients of the operator's subscribers. These rd party applications may either be network-based (e.g. implemented in an IMS application server) or device/endpoint server based.

This end-to-end service interaction can be placed under the control of the IMS application server, as soon as the service profile of the user is provisioned with an initial filter criteria that identifies end-to-end SIP signaling between the user and the 3rd party application.

For instance, routing of SIP signaling to the IMS application server may be determined by the fact that the SIP request is addressed to a specific SIP URI (e.g. sip:this_service@3P_SP.com), a specific SIP URI domain (e.g. 3P_SP.com), or because the SIP request explicitly identifies a 3rd party application in a SIP header or in an SDP (session description protocol) body. For instance, the name of a game could appear in the session description of a SIP INVITE aiming at starting a gaming session.

Service logic inserted in the signaling path between the user and the 3rd party service can serve various purposes: control, charging, monitoring, adding value. Do not overlook the latest item: telecommunications should not be only about control and charging.

3rd Party Services Through SIP Indirection or Inclusion in SIP Session (same)

This is just a variant of the previous one.

This case differs from the one above because SIP interaction only takes place between the user and the service logic hosted in the IMS application server.

The 3rd party logic or content is accessed/controlled through other protocol(s) than SIP (e.g. HTTP, RTSP, web services).

I already gave an example of such an integration through SIP indirection. In the future, I will post another one showing inclusion of 3rd party content in a SIP session controlled by the operator.

The Ut Reference Point (lower part left)

The picture shows the support of the Ut interface which, in the IMS service architecture, permits an IMS client to interface with the IMS Application Server using XCAP (HTTP-based protocol that manipulates XML documents) for service data management.

I extended this interface to HTTP in general, as it is very important to permit that IMS clients interact with service logic through advanced web-based user interfaces. Other relevant protocols may be added as needed.

Conversion Between SIP and Non-IMS Protocols (upper part right)

It can be rightfully argued that this should not be part of the SOA layer, but please bear with it.

The IMS service architecture makes it very convenient to detect and divert SIP signaling which needs to be converted into another protocol (e.g. Jabber/XMPP, OMA IMPS CSP) to an IMS application server serving as gateway towards this other protocol. Conversely, the IMS Application Server can receive non-IMS messages and convert them towards SIP for interaction with IMS clients.

This approach is currently used in 3GPP for the support of SMS over generic IP access (which encapsulates legacy SMS's into SIP IMS Messaging).

Note that the IMS core network only supports protocol conversion from/to legacy circuit-switched networks for voice calls. The rest is up to the application layer.

Christophe

176 comments:

Jack Chrysler said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.kfarbair.com][img]http://www.kfarbair.com/_images/logo.png[/img][/url]

מלון [url=http://www.kfarbair.com]כפר בעיר[/url] - [url=http://www.kfarbair.com/about.html]חדרים[/url] גדולים אנחנו מספקים שירותי אירוח מיוחדים כמו כן יש במקום שירות חדרים הכולל [url=http://www.kfarbair.com/eng/index.html]סעודות רומנטיות[/url] במחירים מיוחדים אשר מוגשות ישירות לחדרכם...

לפרטים נוספים נא לפנות לאתרנו - [url=http://kfarbair.com]כפר בעיר[/url] [url=http://www.kfarbair.com/contact.html][img]http://www.kfarbair.com/_images/apixel.gif[/img][/url]

Anonymous said...

Skeleton the subhuman with two backs casinos? endorse this incomplete [url=http://www.realcazinoz.com]casino[/url] president and tergiversate online casino games like slots, blackjack, roulette, baccarat and more at www.realcazinoz.com .
you can also place into custody up our blooming [url=http://freecasinogames2010.webs.com]casino[/url] abdicate at http://freecasinogames2010.webs.com and requite in reasonable spectacularly away !
another solitary [url=http://www.ttittancasino.com]casino spiele[/url] within an eyelash of is www.ttittancasino.com , because german gamblers, cause the ascent erstwhile unfettered online casino bonus.

Anonymous said...

settled 21 and be in accomplish fro a yen for of some grown-up toys? bourgeon into amends inasmuch as nutty [url=http://www.avi.vg]sex toys [/url] online, open-handed exit of grown up toys like [url=http://www.avi.vg/category.php?a=coition4sexx&cid=3]vibrators [/url] and [url=http://www.avi.vg/category.php?a=up to show one's age to bed4sexx&cid=30]dildos [/url]at www.avi.vg , captivate dilapidated falter one-time the acquiesce, another finest disposal to drum out of the corps [url=http://www.ewgpresents.com]viagra online[/url] is the all latest http://www.ewgpresents.com and the chief ed rx [url=http://www.rxpillsmd.net]online viagra[/url] drugstore www.rxpillsmd.net , and the prime generic [url=http://www.generic4you.com]viagra[/url] pharmacist's at www.generic4you.com or at www.generik4u.com the [url=http://www.generik4u.com]sildenafil citrate[/url] shop.

Anonymous said...

looking representing ed drugs? [url=http://www.cahv.org]buy viagra online [/url]and charge out of sprung shipping at http://www.cahv.org . another good place to [url=http://www.kiosknews.org]buy viagra online[/url] is www.kiosknews.org .

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.c-medical.biz/]buy cialis[/url] and [url=http://www.medical-250l.biz/]viagra online[/url] at the finest and most trusted generic drugs online pharmacies : www.c-meical.biz and www.medical-250.biz ,
constraint our proletariat prices in behalf of viagra, cialis, levitra and more drugs online.

Dean said...

greetings to all.
I would first like to thank the writers of this blog by sharing information, a few years ago I read a book called guanacaste costa rica in this book deal with questions like this one.

Anonymous said...

lost your money at the [url=http://www.realcazinoz.com]casino[/url] ?over 21 and looking where to [url=http://www.generic4you.com]buy viagra online[/url]? or even how to buy [url=http://www.avi.vg]adult toys[/url]? well you can try this websites and [url=http://www.medical-250.biz]buy viagra[/url]. [url=http://www.generic4you.com]sildenafil[/url] and [url=http://www.generic4you.com]generic viagra[/url] online. you can also buy [url=http://www.generik4u.com]viagra[/url] online.
so for [url=http://www.avi.vg]sex toys[/url] and [url=http://www.ewgpresents.com]viagra online[/url] check us ! for great [url=http://www.cahv.org]viagra[/url] deals check us now!

niz said...

Hello .. firstly I would like to send greetings to all readers. After this, I recognize the content so interesting about this article. For me personally I liked all the information. I would like to know of cases like this more often. In my personal experience I might mention a book called Generic Viagra in this book that I mentioned have very interesting topics, and also you have much to do with the main theme of this article.

Anonymous said...

hi all
http://www.tor.com/community/users/tanahahaz1970
http://www.tor.com/community/users/ittrapadex1974
http://www.tor.com/community/users/unweistinook1974
http://www.tor.com/community/users/queseofresin1988
http://www.tor.com/community/users/riejecgena1982

Anonymous said...

Let's talk, to me is what to tell on this question.

Anonymous said...

babe naked [url=http://www.javaworld.com/community/user/93564] nude pics[/url] Naked

mudupock said...

Hi there, awesome site. I thought the topics you posted on were very interesting

clomid

Supremo Opresor said...

what a great way to to maximize the use of Buy Cialis to prevent ED in your bed!

Anonymous said...

unlock iphone 4
unlock iphone 4
iphone 4 unlock

http://drupalcafe.com/node/30 http://islandora.ca/node/203
My uncle took my computer to get it fixed after it got hit with a hard virus last year. he said there should be a virus protection on it, but i can't find it anywher, I want to run a virus scan because something popped up telling me i have a virus. But i clicked off of it because i wasn't sure if THAT was a virus or real. Where do I go in my computer to make sure i have a anti Virus protection, (and a fire wall) I want to download AVG to make sure, but will something bad happen if i try to download a virus protection IF i already have one that i dont know about? Thank you.
how to unlock iphone 4 iphone 4 unlock

iphone 4 unlock [url=http://unlockiphone44.com]unlock iphone 4[/url] how to unlock iphone 4 iphone 4 unlock

Free Poker said...

I wonder how you got so good. This is really a fascinating The IMS Lantern blog, lots of stuff that I can get into. One thing I just want to say is that your The IMS Lantern Blog is so perfect!
--------------------------
Our www: No Deposit Poker Bonus

No Deposit Bonus said...

I really enjoy to be here. Your have great insight about "An IMS Application Server in Context" of your post. Your The IMS Lantern blog is really excellent.
--------------------------
My website: Play Poker Tours Bonus deals and Instant bonus for Poker.

Poker Instantly said...

This is really a fascinating website and all your articles, lots of useful stuff. One thing I just want to say is that your The IMS Lantern Blog is so perfect to me.
--------------------------
Our www: Online Holdem Poker

Poker said...

I appear forward to coming back to read your "An IMS Application Server in Context" post also.
--------------------------
Visit my web: Poker 50 gratuit & Poker Bonus Deposito & Poker Online Kostenlos & Bonus senza deposito

Janel said...

Quite useful info, thank you for the article.

Anonymous said...

viagra online without prescription can you purchase viagra over counter - viagra from us online no prescription

Anonymous said...

generic viagra buy viagra online us no prescription - generic viagra buy

Anonymous said...

generic viagra online viagra bill - best place buy viagra online yahoo

Anonymous said...

viagra online without prescription order viagra trial - generic viagra cheapest

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online buy tramadol in missouri - tramadol withdrawal after 3 weeks

Anonymous said...

buy soma 350mg soma bras embraceable - buy soma double cross

Anonymous said...

buy soma online illegal buy soma online - order soma online overnight

Anonymous said...

buy soma drug interactions with somac - online soma no prescription

Anonymous said...

buy soma online no prescription soma bras cheap - buy soma double cross

Anonymous said...

buy cialis online daily cialis new zealand - cheap cialis new zealand

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol ultram addiction of tramadol - tramadol hydrochloride for dogs side effects

Anonymous said...

generic cialis cialis how long does it work - best way buy cialis online

Anonymous said...

cialis drug cialis online miglior prezzo - buy cialis online discount

Anonymous said...

buying xanax xanax order online no prescription - xanax online us

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online can you buy tramadol in greece - tramadol 50mg

Anonymous said...

xanax online buy xanax online with paypal - buy xanax 1mg

Anonymous said...

generic xanax xanax bars 2mg - xanax xr online

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol dosage - tramadol 50 mg dogs side effects

Anonymous said...

buy xanax online cheap xanax withdrawal newborn - xanax side effects rage

Anonymous said...

xanax online xanax highest mg - xanax headache

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online order tramadol online next day - tramadol 50 mg high

Anonymous said...

xanax online generic xanax pills identification - drug used get off xanax

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol generic ultracet - tramadol hcl 50 mg tablets

Anonymous said...

xanax online generic xanax mylan a4 - xanax 7.5mg

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online buy tramadol no prescription cheap - good place buy tramadol online

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online generic name for tramadol - tramadol 50mg norsk

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol 50mg vs vicodin 5mg - buy tramadol with mastercard

Anonymous said...

xanax online effects of recreational xanax use - xanax overdose

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol 50mg tablets an 627 - generic tramadol er

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol buy tramadol usa pharmacy - buy tramadol overnight delivery no prescription

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol 100mg online overnight - tramadol sale no prescription

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol overnight shipping no prescription - buy tramadol online cheap no prescription

Anonymous said...

alprazolam drug buy xanax bars online no prescription - xanax withdrawal 2012

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol overdose death - if you overdose tramadol

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol no prescription tramadol prescription - boompanjang blogspot buy tramadol online

Anonymous said...

generic tramadol online tramadol overnight no prescription - can buy tramadol usa

Anonymous said...

xanax online do employers drug test xanax - buy xanax online real

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol kratom - buy tramadol online without rx

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol overdose itching - purchase cheap tramadol online

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol 50 mg compared to vicodin - buy tramadol online forum

Anonymous said...

xanax online xanax 604 - xanax drug test kits

Anonymous said...

xanax online xanax pills pictures - xanax military drug test

Anonymous said...

buy carisoprodol what's carisoprodol high like - soma carisoprodol addiction

Anonymous said...

generic xanax xanax bars info - xanax 2mg dosage

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online buy tramadol from thailand - ultram tramadol withdrawal

Anonymous said...

generic xanax fake xanax bars g3722 - does xanax show up in urine drug test

Anonymous said...

generic xanax buy prescription drugs online xanax - generic xanax purepac

Anonymous said...

xanax online xanax effects drug test - buy valium xanax online

Anonymous said...

buy xanax online cheap drug information on xanax - buy xanax online mexico

Anonymous said...

buy carisoprodol what does carisoprodol 350 mg do - carisoprodol dosage for back pain

Anonymous said...

tramadol online buy tramadol legal - tramadol dosage extended release

Anonymous said...

xanax online effects of xanax and alcohol together - buy xanax cheap online no prescription

Anonymous said...

carisoprodol 350 mg carisoprodol 350 mg muscle relaxer - carisoprodol meprobamate

Anonymous said...

buy carisoprodol c o d carisoprodol drug - carisoprodol abuse potential

Anonymous said...

can you buy tramadol online legally where to buy tramadol safely - generic tramadol no prescription cod

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol for dogs with pancreatitis - tramadol 100mg erfahrungen

Free Antivirus Download said...

the diagram which you show off in your post it deeply give information about IMS application server. free antivirus download

Anonymous said...

cialis online cheap viagra cialis us - cialis price at cvs

Anonymous said...

cialis no rx buy cialis online in usa - cialis online for sale

Anonymous said...

cialis online buy viagra cialis usa - buy cialis online with mastercard

Anonymous said...

buy cialis online buy 36 hour cialis online - can you buy cialis online in usa

Anonymous said...

cialis online cheap viagra or cialis online - buy cialis online in usa

Anonymous said...

generic xanax buy generic xanax online - xanax effects blood pressure

Anonymous said...

buy cialis online buy cialis dubai - buy cialis online generic

Anonymous said...

buy cialis no prescription cialis online in australia - cialis user reviews

Anonymous said...

xanax online pictures generic xanax tablets - order xanax from europe

Anonymous said...

cialis online cialis long term effects - cialis online pharmacy reviews

Anonymous said...

buy cialis with dapoxetine generic cialis prescription - buying cialis online forum

Anonymous said...

generic xanax online generic xanax difference - happens you overdose xanax

Anonymous said...

generic cialis no prescription cialis daily or as needed - order cialis online usa

Anonymous said...

buy cheap cialis online no prescription cialis in women - buy 36 hour cialis online

Anonymous said...

cialis online cialis kopen - cialis daily buy

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol hcl taken with tylenol - tramadol hydrochloride 50 mg get high

Anonymous said...

learn how to buy tramdadol pain killer tramadol 50mg - buy tramadol online from usa

Anonymous said...

http://landvoicelearning.com/#38471 buy tramadol online overnight shipping - tramadol no prescription cod

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol free shipping tramadol side effects high dose - tramadol zydus 50 mg

Anonymous said...

http://landvoicelearning.com/#62431 tramadol rx purchase - tramadol hcl obat

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol not working - buy tramadol online cod

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online buy tramadol direct - tramadol withdrawal can't sleep

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol 50 mg euphoria - tramadol generic walmart

Anonymous said...

http://landvoicelearning.com/#23561 buy tramadol online tennessee - can you buy tramadol over counter us

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol best place order tramadol online - tramadol 100mg injection

Anonymous said...

buy klonopin online how to buy klonopin - klonopin dosage insomnia

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online order tramadol online no rx - tramadol t7

Anonymous said...

where to buy tramadol tramadol online no prescription usa - tramadol cod online pharmacy

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol no rx buy tramadol online 100mg - tramadol 50 mg a narcotic

Anonymous said...

tramadol generic tramadol 37.5 mg - tramadol overdose long

Anonymous said...

http://buytramadolonlinecool.com/#50897 overdose of tramadol for dogs - tramadol hcl 50mg tablet amnea

Anonymous said...

http://buytramadolonlinecool.com/#63102 tramadol order online tramadol 50mg - tramadol withdrawal+muscle aches

Anonymous said...

learn how to buy tramdadol can you high tramadol - buy tramadol no prescription

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol next day generic tramadol no prescription overnight - tramadol no prescription overseas

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol buy cheap tramadol cod - tramadol xanax together

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol hcl obat apa - can i get high on 50 mg tramadol

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol hydrochloride 50 mg high - tramadol 50 mg half life

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol with mastercard tramadol 1 hcl 50mg - tramadol hydrochloride 50 mg get high

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol cause high - tramadol ultram schedule

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol withdrawal joint pain - tramadol for dogs take with food

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol where can i buy real tramadol - buy tramadol online 100mg

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol 100mg of tramadol erowid - tramadol 50mg tablets high

Anonymous said...

http://buytramadolonlinecool.com/#63102 buy tramadol overnight delivery - tramadol nsaid

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol is tramadol for dogs an nsaid - tramadol pictures

Anonymous said...

http://landvoicelearning.com/#74967 tramadol hcl sleep - tramadol withdrawal timeline

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol with cod buy tramadol online usa - tramadol no prescription next day

Anonymous said...

http://landvoicelearning.com/#30896 tramadol hcl for pain - tramadol dosage 60 lb dog

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol without rx que es tramadol 50 mg - tramadol good suboxone withdrawal

Anonymous said...

klonopin without prescriptions klonopin side effects joint pain - buy clonazepam online canada

Anonymous said...

http://buytramadolonlinecool.com/#96430 buy tramadol hydrochloride online usa - tramadol 50mg buy

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol y paracetamol - ultram tramadol addiction

Anonymous said...

http://buytramadolonlinecool.com/#73892 tramadol clorhidrato 100mg gotas - tramadol 50mg prescription

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol 50 mg online - generic tramadol no prescription overnight

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol withdrawal flu - can someone overdose tramadol

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol hcl vs norco - where should i buy tramadol from online

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol buy tramadol online no prescription mastercard - buy tramadol hydrochloride 50mg

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol cheap online cheap online tramadol cod - tramadol withdrawal in pregnancy

Anonymous said...

http://buytramadolonlinecool.com/#96430 why can you buy tramadol online - buy tramadol online saturday delivery

Anonymous said...

http://reidmoody.com/#41572 death by ativan overdose - rare side effects ativan

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol 50 mg for headaches - tramadol vs vicodin high

Anonymous said...

clonazepam drug most common side effects klonopin - can you overdose klonopin ambien

Anonymous said...

http://buytramadolonlinecool.com/#91646 tramadol 50mg kapslar - tramadol 50 overdose

Anonymous said...

ways to buy ativan online ativan vs xanax flight anxiety - ativan dosage usage

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol tramadol from usa no prescription - tramadol no prescription saturday delivery

Anonymous said...

http://blog.dawn.com/dblog/buy/#56932 buy tramadol online no prescription overnight - buy cheap tramadol in usa

Anonymous said...

http://reidmoody.com/#51208 ativan no prescription - buy ativan online canada

Anonymous said...

ativan online ativan side effects in elderly - ativan withdrawal protocol

Anonymous said...

ways to buy ativan online ativan dosage half life - treatment for ativan overdose

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol online credit card - tramadol 50 mg effervescent tablets

Anonymous said...

buy xanax online how to buy xanax - quotes on xanax

Anonymous said...

buy xanax overnight delivery xanax high much - overdose on xanax and ambien

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol rx order tramadol with mastercard - tramadol for dogs empty stomach

Anonymous said...

http://southcarolinaaccidentattorney.com/#50476 carisoprodol soma sun - carisoprodol dosage children

Anonymous said...

xanax anxiety xanax for anxiety reviews - xanax overdose toxicity

Anonymous said...

http://ranchodelastortugas.com/#64581 xanax and alcohol fun - xanax xr half life

Anonymous said...

carisoprodol 350 mg soma carisoprodol mechanism action - carisoprodol 175 mg

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online buy cheap tramadol overnight - tramadol 50 mg and breastfeeding

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online next day tramadol online - tramadol 100 mg high dose

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online cheap tramadol online cod - tramadol urban dictionary

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol usa life after tramadol addiction - tramadol dosage for dogs by weight

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online 200 mg tramadol high - tramadol 750

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol withdrawal treatment - buy tramadol online free shipping

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online no prescription overnight tramadol overdose how much - tramadol 100 mg slow release

Anonymous said...

cheap carisoprodol carisoprodol with advil - carisoprodol user reviews

Anonymous said...

buy xanax online xanax effects children - xanax dosage get you high

Anonymous said...

http://ranchodelastortugas.com/#58720 round blue xanax 1mg - xanax side effects on liver

Anonymous said...

buy xanax online xanax nursing implications - xanax no prescription overnight delivery

Anonymous said...

http://bayshorechryslerjeep.com/#3880 xanax and alcohol withdrawal - xanax side effects pregnancy

Anonymous said...

xanax online prescription xanax 4mg pill - xanax withdrawal memory loss

Anonymous said...

Article writing is also a fun, if you be acquainted with afterward you can write or else it is difficult to write.


my web page; bathroom in northern virginia

Anonymous said...



my web-site ... webpage

Anonymous said...

Үour current write-up рroviԁes verified
nеceѕsary to uѕ. Ιt’s rеаlly
useful аnd you're naturally very experienced in this field. You have popped my eye in order to different opinion of this topic with intriguing and strong content material.

My homepage - edu.pl

Anonymous said...

What's Taking place i'm new to this, I stumbled upon this I have found It
positively useful and it has helped me out loads. I am hoping to give a
contribution & help other customers like its aided me.
Good job.

My web-site ... novoline automaten spielen

Anonymous said...

Heу theгe, I think your websіtе might bе hаving browsеr
compatibilіty isѕues. When I looκ аt your webѕite іn Ie, it lοoks fіne but when opening in Internеt
Exρlоreг, it has somе overlаppіng.
I јust wаnted tо give yοu a quick hеadѕ up!
Οther thеn that, awеsome blοg!


Alѕo νіsit my homepage :: hcg diet gourmet cookbook vol 2

Anonymous said...

Your current ρost offers verіfied necessary to mе personally.

It’s reallу useful and уоu are certainly really
еduсated in this regiοn. You have opened up my oωn eyes for yοu to numerοus thοughts about this mattеr
with interesting anԁ strong content.

Feel frеe to surf tо mу wеb blog; ambien

Anonymous said...

This is where the children's mural painting attorney website marketing most of your new driveway, do refer us and send them our way.

my blog attorney lead generation

Anonymous said...

Great article, just what I was looking for.

Review my web blog ... bokk of ra ()

Calyin Dyol said...

Nice Post Love Reading Its

tadalis 20 mg

Generic Viagra

gibsonherry said...

Professionally written blogs are rare to find, however I appreciate all the points mentioned here. I also want to include some other writing skills which everyone must aware of.
Cisco SF200